Advantages and Disadvantages of DMPA Injectable Contraceptives

Of all the scientific advancements, effective contraception is arguably the one that has been eminent in making women equal partners in society. It has also given men and women unprecedented control over such major life considerations as when and how families are created and reared.

One of the most successful means of contraception is the injectable contraceptive. This method of birth control involves synthetic hormones that are administered by a deep intra-muscular injection. These injections are considered to be a secure technique of reversible contraception for most women. There is availability of two types of injectable contraceptives. These are progestin-only contraceptives and combined contraceptives that contain both progestin and estrogen hormones. The progestin-only injections contain DMPA, which stands for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. The administered dosage is 150 mg IM every three months. The injection should be given within the first five days of the onset of menses. If given beyond this time, it is advisable to use an alternate birth control method for two to four weeks.

The DMPA contraceptives prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the process of ovulation, which signifies the release of the eggs by the ovaries. They also thicken the cervical mucus, thus making it difficult for the sperms to pass through. This process also decreases the motility of the fallopian tubes. If found satisfactory, these injections can be used by women throughout their reproductive years. However, this method is recommended for females above the age of 16 because of the theoretical concern about its repercussion on bone density.

Similar to any other technique of birth control, the DMPA contraceptives also have their advantages and disadvantages. First, a look at the advantages. This method is hassle free and effective. It has been used by over 90 million women and is reported to be as effective as sterilization. One injection can prevent pregnancy for 3 months. Secondly, it offers no hindrance to normal sexual life and can be made use of at any stage. Thirdly, it is extremely safe and can be even used by nursing mothers as early as six weeks after childbirth. Also, there is probably no increase in congenital abnormalities when contraception failure occurs. Fourthly, there are no side effects related to estrogen, which involve the risk of heart attack. Fifthly, it shields the body from ovarian and endometrial cancer and uterine fibroids. Lastly, it is reversible and one can plan a family after a gap of three to six months on stopping the usage.

The disadvantages include alteration in menstrual bleeding, which implies light spotting or heavy bleeding in the beginning. Amenorrhea is a normal effect especially after the first year of use. These injections may result in a few extra pounds as well. The weight gain could be to the proportion of 2 to 4 lbs. each year. However, diet restrictions could be helpful in such cases. There could be symptoms of headache, breast tenderness, moodiness, nausea, hair loss, less sex drive or acne in some women. One of the biggest disadvantages is that this method does not safeguard from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV and AIDS.

All techniques of contraception have side effects. One just has to weigh the pros and cons and make the best choice suitable to ensure a carefree living.

Top 5 Solutions For the Obesity Crisis in America

Obesity is a major health issue affecting the United States today. It is reported that 31 out of 51 US states are reporting an increased number of the obese in their population, and another report made by the Trust for America's Health indicated that two-thirds of adults in the US are overweight, and the children are coming not too far behind as well. What are the solutions to this alarming medical trend?

Obesity is an alarming public health crisis

According to most nutritionists and dietitians, an individual who has a BMI, or Body Mass Index of 25 and above is considered to be overweight, while those who have a BMI of 30 and above already considered obese. Obesity is a truly life-threatening condition. It's often linked with so-called "lifestyle" diseases such as hypertension, sleep apnea, heart disease, diabetes, alcoholism, low self-esteem and other factors that lead to a lower quality of life.

Major factors that contribute to the rise in obesity

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is becoming an alarming global epidemic, and it's estimated that around 2 billion people are either overweight or obese. Among the major reasons for the spike in the numbers of the obese are the widespread practice of sedentary lifestyles, which is also coupled by a major shift in diets to junk foods and carbohydrates-rich fast food fare. The WHO states that Americans are among the most overweight people in the planet, and the crisis shows no signs of abating, since more US states are reporting an increase in the numbers of the obese. Obesity rates among adults have already gone up by 20 percent in 47 US states including the District of Columbia.

There's an alarming rise in the number of overweight children

The ever-increasing number of overweight and obese children is also very alarming. A report has suggested that around 25 million children in the United States are either overweight or obese. The southern part of the US has a serious obesity epidemic, and 10 of the 15 southern states have the highest levels of child obesity. Health officials admit that despite the increasing attention to this alarming health trend, obesity is still continuing to grow in the US. And while some policy efforts are being made to address the issue, the United States still very lacks a truly comprehensive program to tackle the increase in obesity numbers.

What are the best possible solutions for addressing obesity?

Most health experts have agreed that there has to be a national-level policy campaign to effectively combat obesity. Drastic action has to be taken by government, local communities and individuals, and there's absolutely no magic or overnight pill for this menace. What is needed is a major shift inorms and eating habits. A lot of emphasis must also be placed on enhanced physical activity to reduce the numbers of the overweight. Here are the 5 major recommendations for effectively combating obesity.

1. A broad and all-inclusive approach needs to be done to help individuals make healthy choices, and support also has to come from both schools, families, communities, employers, food and beverage companies as well as government.
2. The American Academy of Pediatrics Has also advocated that doctors must also pay extra attention to the physical activity of their child patients. They also need to promote a child's physical activity level, as well as provide education and better health supervision, and find ways to reduce the amount of sedentary activities at home or in school.
3. Federal, state and local governments must cooperate with private employers and insures to make sure that a comprehensive wellness program is in place in offices and companies.
4. More research should be done to effectively promote healthier habits.
5. A national strategy to combat obesity must also be implemented by the Federal Government.

After some of measures being currently implemented by government and the private sector, obesity both along adults and children continues to rise at an alarming pace. It's important the adults and children eat a balanced diet and maintain a healthy and active lifestyle, so that they could contribute to halting the spread of this dreadful health epidemic.

The Basics about Bird Flu

Avian influenza is a natural infection in wild birds, which are actually carriers without ever being affected by the disease. Never the less, the avian flu can be passed to domestic poultry through various types of contact such as sharing the same food and water or coming in contact with excrements and cages of contaminated birds. A fairly easy way of determining whether poultry such as chicken, ducks, turkeys has bird flu is microscope examination of their saliva and nasal secretions.

Bird flu caused by influenza A viruses does not have a spontaneous effect on humans. The possibility is rather low to many because we are not as susceptible to it as birds. Although rare, cases of human infection have been outdone by the press. The virus that spreads among humans is known as the human influenza virus and has three branches: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2. The viruses vary through the different types of proteins that form their genetic coat: Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidaze. Parts of the virus affecting humans have also been found in birds, but the main concern is that the virus is in permanent replication and may one day evolve into a more potent form.

Furthermore, there are two forms of influencing, varying through pathogenic capacity. The low form is usually not easily spotted and can cause minor derangements, while the high extremes of virulence are much more dangerous leading to high death ratio and damaging vital body parts.

Moreover, the H5N1 virus or the influenza A virus has affected a number of people. For this reason, it is becoming a nuisance in undeveloped regions of Asia and Africa where poverty is widespread and living conditions are at a limit. In these places transmission between different species of birds and bird to human transmission is very likely because people live in very close contact with their poultry. Generally the following manifestations are present: conjunctivitis, pneumonia, breathing disorder, fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches.

Although researchers are trying to come up with a vaccine as fast as possible, further experiments with the genetic coat of the virus are a must for the cure to be efficient. However, medication does exist. The likes of Zanamavir and Oseltamavir are currently on the market but it is not known whether they work or not.

At present time nobody can tell 100% if bird flu can cause a pandemic, but the H5N1 virus is closely monitored by experts worldwide.

What Causes Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Part 2

Recent research has shown that in Fibromyalgia / CFS patients there is an irregular molecular weight for cells and enzymes that act as the body's defense mechanisms.

Viral channels remain open as expressed by RNase L weights long after the viruses have effectively been eliminated.

This means that your body still thinks it is fighting infections long after they have been eaten, consuming energy resources and destroying other healthy cells and theby contributing to the overall feeling of exhaustion.

For example, lets examine a commonly cited feature of Fibromyalgia and CFS. You should have noticed that when you have the slightest inkling of a sore throat or a cold beginning, your fibromyalgia / CFS symptoms get noticeably worse, but interestingly the cold itself never completely develops.

This is a well documented feature of an up-regulated immune system, overreacting to eliminate the infection and subtailing leaving the viral enzymes channels open, way longer than would normally be the case in a healthy patient.

The cold virus is beaten but your immune system is still effectively fighting it, the lymphocytes can not find what they are looking for so float around attacking the wrong cells.

The effect is that your Fibromyalgia / CFS gets worse.

Not surprisingly, Ampligen has been found to have positive results in some CFS sufferers, as it has a strong antiviral mechanism, the incidence of viral infection and viral channel activation is reduced taking the stress off the ANS and effectively making the patient "feel" better .

However, the ultimate goal should be to restore healthy immune function and appropriate immune response.

Similarly with Fibromyalgia / CFS of bacterial origin, the presence of these bacteria are causing an irregular dysfunctional immune response. What we can do of course with bacterial infections is reduce the presence of the organizations to almost zero while simultaneously addressing the underlying cause, the dysfunctional immune system.

There are generally over-reported instances of patients diagnosed with Fibromyalgia and CFS making a full recovery after antibiotics which only goes to indicate that the original diagnosis should have been Lyme's borrelia.

However this is a minority of cases and does not warrant the abuse of this data being touted around on various internet sites as Lyme's IS Fibromyalgia and / or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

In order to treat patients with Fibromyalgia / CFS type 1, I advocating reducing the bacterial load using synthetic antibiotics.

The rule I recommend is to start with 1.5g Amoxicillin working up to 3g taken through the course of the day. After 2 months on this regimen a 4 month program of Metronidazole and Amoxicillin should be taken together.

This rigorous program will address the problem of borrelia in their latent and active states and give enough time and high enough volumes to penetrate deep into all body tissues where borrelial spirochetes can lie dormant, finish off with 2 months of Amoxicillin to consolidate results.

Amoxicillin is very well tolerated in most individuals with a negligible side effect profile. In patients where Amoxicillin is not tolerated, or if there appears to be some bacterial resistance, Doxycycline should be substituted.

Metronidazole I'm afraid is awful and may make you feel as poorly as the syndrome itself, it can be taken for 4 days of a 7 day window thus reducing the side effects. Like most things that are nasty it works extremely well.

In patients averse to the concept of taking synthetics, a herbal supplement has been receiving reports from collections of powerful antibiotic, antiviral and immuno-modulatory properties. Pentacyclic Alkaloid Type Uncaria Tomentosa, is a Peruvian herb, it is produced by Nutrimedix Ltd under the trade name, Samento. It is an arena I will be investigating personally in the near future and will post reports after a statistically relevant period.

If you Google nutrimedix you will find them. As you would expect, it is expensive whereas the antibiotic regime should be free or will relate to your individual country's adult prescription charge.

In following this program, it is imperative that you explain to your doctor what you are doing, why and what you are trying to achieve, and get his support in prescribing these quantities of antibiotics.

There is strong controversy around the whole Lyme's arena and some doctors are under pressure from authorities to reduce antibiotic prescriptions due to the emergence of bacteria that are becoming resistant to them.

This is not your problem at the moment. If your practitioner can not give you good reason that you are unsuitable for long-term antibiotic therapy then take your business elsewhere.

A true borrelial infestation should be terminated with the same prejudice that a provider would associate with severe syphilitic infections, a similar spirochetal organism which can extremely cause cause brain and tissue damage if left untreated.

Under NO circumstances should a sufferer self prescribe or self administrator drugs and the author takes NO responsibility should adverse effects occur as a result of self-administration after reading this document.

As a Fibromyalgia / CFS sufferer you will have suffered for some time with musculoskeletal abnormalities. You may be at an age where these abnormalities may not YET have identified themselves as musculoskeletal pain.

The body is a resilient and hardwearing organism that can tolerate deficiencies, anomalies and abnormalities for many years before becoming symptomatic. You may be somewhat older and have already suffered back pain, either lumbar, thoracic or cervical, over many years. You may have suffered from TMJ and headaches for many years.

In the next chapter I will explain how these abnormalities have come together to present as "torsion" in the thoracic area of ​​the spine, how this relates to your autonomic Nervous System, and how this in turn refers to the symptoms of your Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

It does not matter about the exact etiology of your personal condition. All these anomalies and abnormalities in your musculoskeletal make-up, balance and gait are what has finally lead you down the path of Fibromyalgia / CFS.

And the good news is that THEY ARE REVERSIBLE.

Some may take longer to address than others. Some may be more expensive to address than others, and some may entail an increased element of hardship and suffering to address.

But absolutely, they CAN be addressed, and by combining an undertaking to correct these structural anomalies, with my techniques and procedures, you will be able to see rapid improvements in your condition with noticeable improvement in the first month of between 25 and 50% and an 80 to 90% improvement over the year that you stay on the treatment protocol.

Zika virus could help combat brain cancer — ScienceDaily

Zika virus, feared for causing microcephaly in babies whose mothers were infected during pregnancy by attacking the cells that will give rise to the fetus’s cerebral cortex, could be an alternative for treatment of glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive kind of malignant brain tumor in adults.

This discovery was made by researchers at the University of Campinas’s School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCF-UNICAMP) in São Paulo State, Brazil.

“Zika virus, which has become a threat to health in the Americas, could be genetically modified to destroy glioblastoma cells,” said Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, a professor at FCF-UNICAMP and head of the institution’s Innovare Biomarker Laboratory.

Through the mass spectrometry analysis of Zika virus-infected glioblastoma cells, scientists also identified the presence of digoxin, a molecule which induced the death of tumoral cells of skin and breast cancer in previous experiments.

Resulting from a Thematic Project supported by the Sao Paulo Research Foundation — FAPESP , the study is described in an article posted to bioRxiv, a preprint repository for the biological sciences, and accepted for publication by Journal of Mass Spectrometry.

Previous research conducted recently in Brazil and elsewhere points to increased mortality rates for human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) infected by Zika virus, as well as growth inhibition and morphological abnormalities.

Alterations in these cells, which are precursors of brain cells and become cortical neurons in embryos and fetuses, may be a cause of microcephaly in babies whose mothers have been infected by Zika. Other studies have shown that the virus is capable of moving into brain cells, modifying the regulation of the cell cycle, and inducing their death.

In light of these findings, the researchers at FCF-UNICAMP set out to investigate the effects of Zika virus when it infects glioblastoma cells. To do this, they infected human malignant glioblastoma cells with Zika and recorded microscope images of them 24 hours and 48 hours after infection in order to observe any metabolic alterations (cytopathic effects) caused by inoculation of the virus.

The results of the analysis showed that the glioblastoma cells displayed moderate cytopathic effects 24 hours after infection, such as rounded, swollen cell bodies and formation of syncytia, masses of cytoplasm in which the membrane contains several nuclei.

The most severe cytopathic effects were observed 48 hours after infection, with a larger number of rounded, swollen cells, more syncytium formation and pronounced loss of cell integrity, all of which denote cell death.

“The cytopathic effects of Zika infection on glioblastoma cells were observed most clearly after 48 hours. Cell morphology was almost totally altered during this period,” Catharino said.

Key molecule

To identify the main compounds (metabolites) produced by glioblastoma cells during infection by Zika, the researchers analyzed the cells using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI).

The technique consists of breaking down the atoms or molecules in a sample so that they become charged with more or fewer electrons than the original (ionization) and then separating them by mass/charge ratio in order to identify and quantify them.

The mass spectrometry data were submitted to statistical analysis, which showed that 24 hours after infection, the cells began to produce cardiac glycosides, especially digoxin.

Previous in vitro studies conducted by researchers in other countries showed that this molecule was able to reduce the multiplication and increase the mortality of cells from melanoma, the most aggressive type of skin cancer, as well as breast cancer and neuroblastoma, a tumor that typically affects patients aged 15 or younger.

Because digoxin and other cardiac glycosides have been shown to induce cancer cell death, the researchers concluded that infection by Zika triggered synthesis of the molecule in glioblastoma cells and that this phenomenon is probably one of the factors that lead to neuronal cell death. “Digoxin could be the key molecule that activates glioblastoma cell death during Zika infection,” Catharino said.

Based on these findings, the researchers suggest that a genetically engineered Zika virus could eliminate the effects of infection and leave only the viral particles that synthesize digoxin. Thus, the virus could be an alternative for the treatment of glioblastoma, which is highly resistant to chemotherapy drugs.

“The use of oncolytic viruses [viruses genetically engineered to destroy tumor cells] is at an advanced stage, especially to treat skin cancer and myeloma [bone marrow cancer],” Catharino said. “Zika could be a candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma.”