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11 February 2019, 17:06 GMT
From Associated Press
While people in the DNA look for indications of health and heritage, the best friend of man is also under the microscope.
Genetic tests for dogs have increased enormously in recent years, fed by companies that repeat the popular tests for humans at home, and offer a deep dive into the genes of a pet with the swab of a dog's canine. More than a million dogs have been tested in just over a decade.
The increase in tests has led to a debate about standards, interpretation and limitations. But for many dog owners, DNA is a way to get to know their companions better.
"It has brought together a number of pieces of the puzzle," says Lisa Topol, who recently tested her mixed dogs, Plop and Schmutzy. Plop was the best scoring mix and Schmutzy also took part in the agility contest on Saturday at the Westminster Kennel Club dogshow in New York. Judging by the coveted best-in-show prize starts Monday.
A test by Embark – who became Westminster's first DNA test partner this fall – confirmed that Topol suspected that her pets with a high octane rating are more Australian cattle dogs than anything else. But Schmutzy's genetic pie chart contains surprising ingredients, including generous amounts of Labrador retriever and Doberman pinscher.
Huh? Topol first thought. And then: maybe Schmutzy's love of water and get her inner Lab coming out. And does she not run a bit like a Doberman?
"It's the dogs that they are," said Topol, an advertising agency in New York. "They are unique, and they are special." But testing "makes me understand them better."
Canine DNA testing for certain conditions and purposes goes back to more than two decades, but the industry started after scientists mapped a complete set of dog genes and published the results in 2005.
Wisdom Health, part of animal care and candy giant Mars Inc., started a variety identification test in 2007, added a health screening option a few years later and says it has tested more than 1.1 million dogs worldwide. Numerous other brands are also available.
Mass market trials have fueled research and helped animal shelters to attract adoptive families by providing more information about future pets. DNA can support the origin of purebred dogs and helps breeders to eliminate certain diseases.
Lisa Topol with her ribbon after her dog Plop won in the Masters agility championship at the Westminster Dog Show on Saturday in New York. No K. Murray / Good Medical
The technology has been used to identify dogs whose owners do not pick up their droppings, to chase dogs accused of biting and to free a Belgian Malinois from the dog victim after being accused of killing a Pomeranian in Michigan . And some veterinarians believe that DNA testing improves care.
"I want to know as much as possible about my patients," says Dr. Ernie Ward, veterinarian and TV personality in Ocean Isle Beach, North Carolina. He recommends testing all puppies.
But doubts about the DNA tree of the dog ended up in the prestigious scientific journal Nature last year.
"The genetic characteristics of the pet must be taken into account," wrote a veterinarian from Boston and two other scientists. Their comments opened with a disturbing story: a pug was euthanized because her owners interpreted DNA results to mean that she had a rare degenerative neurological condition, while in fact her ailment was perhaps a little better to treat.
"These (tests) should be used in a limited way until we get a lot more information," said co-author and veterinarian. Lisa Moses.
One concern is that tests can demonstrate genetic mutations that are related to the disease in some breeds but have unknown effects in the tested breed. It can also be unclear how often dogs with the mutation eventually become ill.
That means that tests alone can not always tell pet owners how much they need to worry. Or tell breeders if a dog is not allowed to breed. Some in the dogdom fear that the DNA test results could prevent animals from passing otherwise good genes because of an ambiguous possibility of disease.
"The risk of overinterpretation is great," but DNA testing can be useful along with other tools, "said Dr. Diane Brown, CEO of the American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation. It has invested almost $ 20 million in genomic and molecular research and supports an international effort to promote standardization for dog DNA testing.
The initiative, led by the non-profit International Partnership for Dogs, provides searchable data on the procedures of testing laboratories and breed specific health testing information.
Test companies say that their work can help researchers to do something about the unknowns and provides immediately useful information, for example whether the genes of a dog suggest bad reactions to certain drugs. Companies such as Embark and Wisdom have assigned veterinarians to help people understand worrisome results.
"We are here to help you better take care of your dog," said Ryan Boyko, CEO of Embark Veterinary Inc., whose company has tested nearly 100,000 dogs for breeding and health in the 3½ years. The alliance with Westminster – for which Embark pays an amount that neither would reveal – exposes the company to breeders in particular.
Long-term Belgian shepherd breeder Lorra Miller, who had dogs that compete in Westminster, was initially skeptical about consumer-oriented dog DNA testing. They found her as a novelty for domestic mixed breeds.
Now she hopes Belgian shepherd dog lovers can build up a number of genetic data to encourage more research into the protective shepherds.
"Even if I do not get immediate benefit," said Miller, who lives near Monroe, Washington, "it's for the future of the breed."
For Rennie Pasquinelli the benefit is a new perspective on her dog, Murray.
He was pegged as a border-border Boston terrier mix when she adopted him. But an embark test last month only detected a pair of border collie mixed with six other breeds, mostly American pit bull terriers. And no Boston terrier at all.
"It is clear that I do not love him more or less," said Pasquinelli, a graduate student of cognitive science at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. "It's like you know something new about someone, that your opinion about them does not change negatively or positively, but you're still looking at them in a different way."