We are currently in the middle of the longest government stop in American history. With 22 full days of delay on Sunday 13 January and no clear end in sight, the 2018-2019 judgment has survived that of 1995 (which ended after 21 days), which was previously the longest by a wide margin.

The partial closure began on December 22, 2018, when President Donald Trump demanded that $ 5 billion be allocated to him to pay for the long and promised border wall with Mexico. While both parties represented in Congress had paid $ 1.6 billion as a compromise, Trump rejected it. . Its $ 5 billion is not enough for a complete wall, but would block an additional 215 kilometers unfenced (in addition to the 120 kilometers that the administration is currently building with existing funds). More recently, Democrats have proposed a spending agenda that would maintain current levels of funding for border security, which Trump immediately rejected.

In the meantime, some 420,000 federal public servants work without pay. 380,000 more are placed without pay; tax refunds may be delayed; and payments for women and young children (WIC) may soon be reduced due to lack of funds.

Most Americans are familiar with government closures, but this is a relatively recent development. They were first created as a result of the 1974 Congressional Budget Act. Since then, Congress has not authorized funding from the federal government 21 times.

The first six did not really affect the functioning of the government. It was only after a series of opinions issued by Attorney General Benjamin Civiletti in 1980 and 1981 that the government began to deal with "funding deficits" – periods in which Congress did not allocate funds for the current functions of the government – as partial closure of government agencies.

Here are the 20 funding gaps prior to the current funding, and why they occurred. Unless otherwise noted, the explanations below are from this helpful article by Dylan Matthews.

Closing 1: 30 September to 11 October 1976

President: Gerald Ford

Senate: Democrats (62-38), Majority Leader, Mike Mansfield

House: Democrats (291-144), President Carl Albert

Why: Ford has vetoed a finance bill for the Ministries of Labor and Health, Education and Welfare (which has since been divided into the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Education). Health and Social Services). This alone did not cause a funding gap because the Democrats quickly canceled its veto, but it was not until October 11 that Congress passed a permanent resolution funding the rest of the government, whose funding had fallen to during the battle between HEW and the Labor Party.

Judgment 2: September 30 to October 13, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: Democrats (59-41), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (292-143), President Tip O'Neill

Why: The Senate wanted to relax the restrictions on the use of Medicaid dollars to cover abortions (informally referred to as the "Hyde Amendment" restrictions), allowing for funding in case of rape, incest and when the health of the mother is in danger; at the time, only the abortions needed to save the mother's life were funded. The Chamber, however, insisted on keeping the ban stricter.

The issue has been addressed in amendments to a bill financing the Labor and HEW Departments. The two chambers could not agree on an agreement until September 30, which created a funding gap for both departments. The gap ended when Congress decided to postpone the issue of abortion until October 31st.

Judgment 3: October 31 to November 9, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: Democrats (59-41), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (292-143), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Reassigning the conflict over abortion did not work! He came back This ditch ended when Carter signed another short-term extension.

Closing 4: November 30 to December 9, 1977

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: Democrats (59-41), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (292-143), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Congress again no agreement on funding for abortion. But the conflict was finally resolved and funding extended to cases of rape, incest and maternal health. Four years later, when Reagan took office, this funding was withdrawn again.

Closing 5: 30 September to 18 October 1978

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: Democrats (59-41), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (292-143), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Carter's first stop is not about abortion! Well, not entirely about it; this contributed to a dispute over the funding of HEW. But beyond that, Carter vetoed a defense spending bill because he was financing a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier that he considered unnecessary and a public works bill because projects he considered pork. Carter eventually prevail and the carrier's funding and projects to which he objected was torn down. The abortion exceptions for rape / incest / maternal health were maintained.

Closing 6: 30 september to 12 october 1979

President: Jimmy Carter

Senate: Democrats (58-42), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (277-158), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Abortion, again – the House wanted to go back to allow only one exception, for the life of the mother, and the Senate wanted to keep a lower standard. The Chamber also wanted higher salaries for congressional and public service staff. This change was adopted, but it was necessary to accept funding for abortions in cases of rape and incest (but do not when the health of the mother is in danger).

Judgment 7: November 20 to 23, 1981

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (244-191), President Tip O'Neill

Why: This was the first closure, in the current sense of the word, when the federal government's functions were severely curtailed. Reagan was fired from 241,000 federal workers, the first time a funding gap resulted in such a significant reduction in federal government operations. Reagan had demanded cuts of $ 8.4 billion in domestic spending and pledged to veto any bill that did not include at least half that amount. The Senate was ready to comply, but the House insisted that reductions in the defense sector be more important and for pay increases for itself and the public service.

Both branches reached an agreement that was $ 2 billion below Reagan's threshold. He vetoed the agreement and closed the government. The closure ended quickly after Congress passed a permanent resolution for just under a month, giving them time to negotiate.

Closed 8: 30 September to 2 October 1982

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (244-191), President Tip O'Neill

Why: It happened literally because Reagan and Congress had social commitments and had forgotten to circulate funds in the meantime. I swear to god. This is what Martin Tolchin writes in Good Medical:

Congress missed the deadline tonight on a catch-all bill to fund the government in the next two and a half months, even as members of the House and Senate passed a Compromise settling the differences between the laws approved by each chamber.

The House and Senate will act on the measure only Friday. Congressional leaders banned the late-night session because of major social events organized by Republicans and Democrats tonight. President Reagan invited all members of Congress to a barbecue at the White House, while the Democrats were holding a fundraising dinner worth $ 1,000.

Closure 9: December 17 to 21, 1982

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (244-191), President Tip O'Neill

Why: This dispute involved funds requested by both the House and the Senate for a public works jobs program, which Reagan threatened to veto. The Chamber also wanted to block funding for the MX and Pershing II missile programs, which were major defense priorities for Reagan. Reagan reluctantly signed a financing bill that did not fund missiles, increased foreign aid to Israel beyond the amount requested, and funded the Legal Services Corporation, which provides civil legal services to poor Americans and Reagan wanted to eliminate.

Closing 10: 10 to 14 November 1983

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (55-45), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (271-164), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Various problems this time around: Democrats in the House wanted more funds for education, more help for Israel and Egypt, less help for Syria and the United States. Salvador and less defense spending than Reagan. The two sides reached a compromise providing for the financing of the MX missile. Democrats have much less money for education and got their defense and their cuts abroad, as well as a ban on oil and gas drilling in federal shelters.

Closing time 11: 30 september to 3 october 1984

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (55-45), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (270-165), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Reagan wanted a crime bill; Democrats in the House wanted water projects and a law overturning a recent Supreme Court decision allowing exemptions from Title IX of the Civil Rights Act for colleges that did not get direct federal funding but whose students benefited. Reagan did not like the last two provisions and a three-day spending extension was passed to give more time to negotiate after the funding gap.

Judgment 12: 3 to 5 October 1984

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (55-45), Majority Leader, Howard Baker

House: Democrats (270-165), President Tip O'Neill

Why: Three days was not long enough! And this time, 500,000 workers were laid off. In the end, the Democrats gave in to the three issues – the crime bill, the civil rights bill, and the water projects – and even granted temporary funding to the anti-communist guerrillas. of Nicaragua.

Closing 13: October 16 to 18, 1986

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Bob Dole

House: Democrats (253-182), President Tip O'Neill

Why: House Democrats highlighted a number of provisions opposed to the White House, including the extension of Assistance to Families with Dependent Children, the name used at the time to refer to social assistance. They had been promised a vote on the extension of social assistance and a concession for the privatization of the Conrail railway by the government and, in exchange, a financing bill. About 500,000 workers were laid off for half a day.

Closing 14: December 18 to 20, 1987

President: Ronald Reagan

Senate: Democrats (54-46), Majority Leader, Robert Byrd

House: Democrats (258-177), President Jim Wright

Why: Congressional Democrats opposed any further funding of the Contras in Nicaragua and insisted on reinstating the doctrine of fairness, a rule recently abandoned by the Federal Communications Commission, which required broadcasters to show points. balanced views on political issues. The Democrats have lost the doctrine of fairness and have accepted a "non-lethal" aid to the Contras.

Closure 15: October 5 to 9, 1990

President: George H. W. Buisson

Senate: Democrats (55-45), Majority Leader George Mitchell

House: Democrats (258-176), President Tom Foley

Why: Bush has pledged to veto any pending resolution that has not been accompanied by a deficit reduction plan. The Chamber tried to override its veto and failed, imposing a final judgment in which millions of workers were fired. The House and Senate passed a joint budget resolution outlining deficit reduction and Bush signed a permanent resolution.

Closure 16: November 13 to 19, 1995

President: Bill Clinton

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Bob Dole

House: Republicans (233-199), President Newt Gingrich

Why: Gingrich and Dole sent Clinton a permanent resolution including increases in Medicare premiums, changes to environmental regulations and an obligation to balance the budget within seven years. Clinton vetoed and the government ended its activities. The closure resulted in an agreement between the three leaders to finance the government at a rate of 75% for four weeks so that negotiations could continue. Clinton has adhered to the requirement of a balanced budget over seven years. Approximately 800,000 employees were transferred.

Closing time 17: 16 December 1995 to 6 January 1996

President: Bill Clinton

Senate: Republicans (53-47), Majority Leader, Bob Dole

House: Republicans (235-198), President Newt Gingrich

Why: The closure, which lasted almost a month, involved using the economic forecasts from the Congressional Budget Office or the Office of Management and Budget to determine whether the White House's budget plan would be balanced. The CBO was more cautious and expected Clinton would still have a $ 115 billion deficit in seven years as part of his plan. The Republicans finally gave in after 21 days and Clinton then proposed a plan that the CBO had agreed to balance the budget. Some 284,000 workers were fired, during the longest closure in history.

Closing 18: October 1st to 17th, 2013

President: Barack Obama

Senate: Democrats (54-46), Majority Leader Harry Reid

House: Republicans (232-200), President John Boehner

Why: Ted Cruz, basically. While Republicans in the House, led by Boehner, had lobbied the White House to agree to cut discretionary spending, Conservatives in the House led by Representative Tom Graves (R-GA) demanded that all Bill of Funding delays the implementation of Obamacare by one year. . It was to be rolled out the following year and the conservatives, mostly led by Cruz and Heritage Action, were desperately seeking to stop it before it won any beneficiaries who could defend it politically. A sufficient number of Conservatives in the House have subscribed to the plan to make it impossible to pass a permanent resolution, and the government has ended its activities.

After 17 days, Boehner folded and passed a funding bill that did not deter Obamacare and which most members of his caucus opposed. About 850,000 workers, about 40% of the federal labor force, were laid off.

Closing time 19: 20 to 22 January 2018

President: Donald Trump

Senate: Republicans (51-49), Majority Leader, Mitch McConnell

House: Republicans (238-193), President Paul Ryan

Why: This one was about immigration. As Vox's Andrew Prokop had explained at the time, Democrats, encouraged by outside activists, wanted to force the Trump Administration and Congress to protect beneficiaries of DACA (deferred action for early childhood). arrival), which prohibited the deportation of unauthorized immigrants to the United States as children, after the Trump administration decided to terminate the program. Because the Democrats easily had enough votes to obstruct a Senate funding bill, they (and a handful of Republican senators who had also voted no) were able to block a bill without protections for beneficiaries of DACA and to impose a closure.

But they pulled out quite quickly afterwards, agreeing to fund the government (and the child health insurance program, which was also to be renewed) after Majority Leader McConnell promised to hold a vote on a bill on immigration.

Closing 20: February 9, 2018

President: Donald Trump

Senate: Republicans (51-49), Majority Leader, Mitch McConnell

House: Republicans (238-193), President Paul Ryan

Why: The second stop of the Trump years was a special Rand Paul. Indeed, calling it a "stop" is a bit generous, as it only lasted a few hours and especially involved Paul forcing his colleagues to stay up until almost 6am.

Be that as it may, Paul was unhappy that congressional leaders had negotiated an agreement that exceeded the budget ceilings adopted under the 2011 fiscal budget agreement. Most Republicans have agreed to the deal as the price needed to increase defense spending, but Paul, among the most dovish Republicans in the House, is also a fierce critic of defense spending.

Paul therefore proceeded to obstruct the bill, delaying its adoption at 5:30 am and technically provoking a brief stop, even though there were easily enough votes in the Senate to pass the bill.